One of the most important and crucial stages of repair work is the direct preparation of the ceiling for painting or another type of decorating surfaces. To do this, use special construction compositions. Leveling the ceiling with putty is the best option.
Features of the composition of fillers for the ceiling
Putty - a thick plastic mixture used for leveling ceilings, improving the relief of walls, as well as for ennobling building facades. It is necessary to distinguish between the concept of "mortar" and "compositions for puttying". The main distinguishing feature is the various indicators of dispersion.
Ceiling mixes for putty consist of the following components:
- Fillers that provide the necessary viscosity to the mass (cement, gypsum, calcareous fractions, sand components);
- Regulators of hardening and setting of the mass (important for a good "hitch" of the building material with the ceiling ceiling);
- Special plasticizers for putties;
- Substances-water repellents (provide proper performance characteristics of finishing in rooms with a high level of humidity);
- The pigments coloring structure in the necessary shade;
- Cellulose polyester elements (they allow the composition to dry faster, the layers form a durable moisture-resistant sheet when cured).
Manufacturers produce putty on the ceiling of two types: starting and finishing. The difference between the two compositions is minimal, and lies in the size of the fractions of the fillers themselves. Starting mix for concrete and concrete elements consists of particles with diameters of 0.6 mm. Finishing analogues consist of particles to the widow less than the starting ones.
The smaller the fraction, the thinner the layer. If a radical ceiling finish is required, it is necessary to hide significant defects on the canvas; use a rougher starting mixture. Then decorative ceiling putty is produced, the surface is leveled and prepared for the next stage.
Finishing putty ceiling with your own hands or with the help of specialists can be made separately from the starting mixtures. For example, if the old ceiling in itself is quite durable and smooth, and for painting only minor defects need to be fixed.
Puttying the ceiling is done with your own hands in order to level all the planes, to give them smoothness and strength. Modern compositions are particularly versatile.
Regardless of what kind of putty putty ceiling, the result is usually one. In addition, the same composition can be used for brickwork, gypsum-concrete constructions, building and insulating plates, plasterboard elements, working on concrete or even wood.
However, there are surfaces that interact poorly with putty compounds. These are glass, plastic, metal surfaces (both processed and “clean”), plastic parts. Also, applying putty is not possible on surfaces that are constantly in a wet state or in any other way exposed to moisture.
Putty for different coatings
Putty plasterboard ceiling, concrete surfaces and any other canvases are always made to align the relief. However, a smooth ceiling in the next stage will be subject to new transformations. That is why it is very important what kind of putty to choose for the ceiling, as well as how it is ultimately applied.
There are three options:
- Putty ceiling for painting their own hands;
- Align the surfaces under the wallpaper;
- Elimination of seams and irregularities on the ceiling with the aim of applying a layer of decorative plaster in the future.
The most difficult and difficult is the putty of the concrete ceiling for painting. The fact is that if you do not eliminate all the irregularities, do not get rid of the seams and other defects, after painting all the roughness will be strongly evident. Whitewashing has a similar effect.
If you do not need to paint the ceiling, but have to finish with wallpaper, you can eliminate only significant defects. Canvas decorative trim will hide minor irregularities. If the ceiling will be decorative plaster, the process of applying putty is further simplified. Of course, the surface should be smooth, the aesthetic perception of space depends on it. However, how to putty on the ceiling, and remove the seams can be, without worrying about the perfect smoothness. This parameter does not matter.
It is not enough to choose a good mixture and to know in theory all the subtleties of how to level the ceiling with putty. It is also important to use all your knowledge in practice, as well as to use building materials wisely.
When working with any type of putty mixtures, it is important to remember that the putty almost always seizes quickly. If the mortar hardens, it will be impossible to apply it to the ceiling. The selected mixture should be mixed immediately before the process of sealing seams and leveling plaster, concrete and other surfaces.
Each type of putty mixtures freezes over time. Cement mixture dries the longest - more than 2.5 hours. Gypsum mass will become solid after 40-70 minutes. Acrylic putty retains its elasticity for a very long time (up to 24 hours). Some polymeric compositions are suitable for work for 2 to 4 days (provided that the container lid where the composition is stored is tightly closed).
Each manufacturer tries to write in detail about the conditions in which it is necessary to apply putty, as well as how to properly operate the surface (especially in specific locations - in the bathroom, in the kitchen). When thinking about which putty is better for the ceiling, it is worth considering the fact that the mixture will show all its qualities only if certain rules are observed.
The role of indoor air temperature and relative humidity plays a role. On the packaging of each product information about these parameters must be present. If conditions are violated, even the thinnest layer will dry much longer. It is also possible that the quality of the coating itself may deteriorate due to this.
It is better not to use gypsum mixes for the ceiling in the kitchen, in the bathroom and in other rooms where it is always wet (steam rooms, saunas). Acrylic blends or textured polymeric putty are more relevant for such purposes. On the poorly cleaned or unprimed ceiling, even the highest-quality mixture will fall unevenly, and over time the coating may collapse.
If on a gypsum board, concrete sheet or other working surfaces, cracks and other deformations appeared after some time, the reason for the appearance of defects may not lie in the quality of the building materials themselves. There is a high probability that errors were made directly during the work itself:
- The air temperature in the room was below 5 degrees;
- The room was too hot (more than 25 degrees);
- Humidity exceeded 80%;
- From old sheets of drywall or any other type of work surfaces, dirt and dust have not been previously removed;
- Forgot about applying a primer or treated areas poorly, unevenly;
- The canvas was treated in direct sunlight, which is too aggressively affected the mixture;
- For sealing deep seams and large deformations they took a mixture with dispersed particles, which are not suitable for this type of work.
Experts also advise to pay special attention to the presence of sand in the composition of putties such materials are better to use for facades or, if you plan to use textured decorative plaster or liquid wallpaper. Compositions where sand fractions are absent are better applied, do not look gray and "dirty."
Preparation of putty mixture
Most of the fillers are available in the form of ready-made mixtures. It is enough to open the container and get to work. In the case of the acquisition of a dry mixture, you need to know how to knead the acquired composition.
When sealing seams and puttying to give smoothness to the canvas, it is unacceptable to use a mass with lumps. It should not be too thin or too viscous. The correct putty lays down evenly, it is convenient and pleasant to work with the material.
On the packaging, the manufacturer always indicates the exact parameters: how much mix is needed, how much water, how to stir, for how long the mass will be suitable for operation. Do not neglect these simple recommendations, relying solely on their experience (and not always successful).
The container where the building material will be kneaded should be sufficiently spacious. Fill the container with water for a third, and then pour the dry mixture. This technique will prevent the formation of lumps.
Coating with spackling mixture is just one of the stages of repair work. After alignment, the ceiling is refined by various decorative techniques and techniques.
If the surface will be covered with rather dense wallpaper, you should not worry too much about the color of the putty. Dense finish on the texture will not "shine through". Also, do not worry about the color of the ceiling in the event that it will eventually be decorated with decorative plaster or liquid wallpaper. These finishing materials (even applied by a very thin layer) form a rather complete web, dense and not translucent.
However, if the final finishing material is rather delicate and delicate, and also differs in a particularly light, subtle color, it is important to take this into account during the acquisition phase of the putty. It is better to choose light compositions without sand.
In general, the choice of putty, and the process of its application should not bring any problems or inconveniences. Observance of elementary rules and the use of high-quality building materials guarantee a good end result.